Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES <p>The (JKUES) provides an effective aid for the dissemination of Engineering and science researches, inspiring interdisciplinary research cooperation to solve the problems related to the engineering and science fields. The JKUES is not limited to a specific aspect of science and engineering but is instead devoted to a wide range of subfields in engineering and sciences. The journal publishes original and review articles in all engineering and science and all science disciplines, which are related to the technology trends. The survey, tutorial, and discussion papers from experts in these fields also are welcome to publish in this journal. The JKUES appears as two types; online (ISSN: 1858-8034) and print (ISSN: 1858-800X). Moreover, the JKUES will be reviewed with double-blind peer reviews, and the journal is quarterly published by year.</p> Karary University en-US Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 1858-800X Performance Analysis of Eroded Compressor Stage https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=94 <p><strong>Erosion of compressor blades due to operation in dusty environments is a serious problem for the manufacturers and users of gas turbine engines, because of significant degradations in performance. This study has been devoted to estimating the change of performance parameters of an axial compressor stage due to erosive deterioration. The influence of erosion considered as consequences of a reduction of rotor blade airfoils, and an increase of tip clearance. The results of this study obtained using the CFD code “NUMECA Fine/Turbo”. This CFD code is a steady, quasi-three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. A Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used. The compressor stage parameters presented for three rotational speeds. Proposed a new approach to consider the changes of geometric parameters of blades due to erosion. Presented an analysis of the effect of erosion and its individual consequences on the pressure ratio, isentropic efficiency and stability margin of the stage. The obtained results verified using an existing experimental data.</strong></p> Mohammed Balla Abdelwahid Eimad Eldin Elhadi Musa Hazim Mohammed Taha Sohaib Osman Hamed Esra Abdulrahman Mohamed Alhassan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.94 The Relation between Burning Time and Burning Energy of HTPB - Based Composite Propellant https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=77 <p>This paper represented a result of several visions of chemical phenomenon and several extractions and extrapolations of experimental works which included a relationship between energy related to a chemical process and the relevant time which is required to achieve this process, but it must be taken into account that those mentioned experimental works hadn’t aimed substantially to study and state this relationship neither implicitly nor explicitly, but the results of those works have been exploited for another field after being compared with the relevant thermodynamic calculations. The selected case study for this paper was the relation between the burning time of Hydroxyl terminated poly butadiene propellant ( HTPB) and the caloric value of this material. The results reflected some relationship between the burning time and the change of the system energy during the burning process.</p> Ameer Awad Ebrahim Osman Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.77 Analysis and Simulation of Tandem Charge https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=78 <p>In the present work, the PG-7 (40mm) anti-tank hollow charge has been developed to double (tandem) hollow charge warhead by using a simulation program. The interaction of the precursor warhead with the Explosive Reactive Armor ERA was studied and the delayed time between the precursor head and the main charge was found which about 50 µs is with 350 mm penetration depth. The effect of precursor charge on the main charge was also studied and this effect was isolated in the delay period, in addition to the effect of precursor warhead jetting on the rear warhead the optimum delay time was found. This study was carried out using the ANSYS AUTODYN simulation program. And the model worked in several ways to reach these goals.</p> Ali M. Zain Mohamed Abdelgadir Nizar M. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.78 Preparation and Characterization of Polymer bonded Explosives Based on Isoprene Rubber https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=79 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">The aim of this work is to prepare five samples of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBXs) with various percent of Isoprene Rubber (IR) and Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) (RDX /IR), based on Sulfur Vulcanization process, and applying them on warheads as insensitive explosive. Density, sensitivity to impact, and ignition temperature have been tested. Mixer water path which used for the manufacturing of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) (capacity 5 L), Filling was made by casting methods, Filling in C-8 rocket warhead. The killing range of the C-8 (IR-RDX) was 18 meters. </span></p> Moammer Noreldeen M.M. Ahmed M. A. Abdalla M. F. Karar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.79 Study of Detonation Wave Profile of Shaped Charge for Different Liner Configurations https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=81 <p>Shaped charges are explosive devices with a high penetration capability; they are used for both civilian and military purposes. Shaped charges are used against different kinds of armors, primarily as anti-tank devices. This work involved modeling and simulation to study the performance parameters of an anti-tank warhead of type PG-7 (40 mm) shaped charge with different liner configurations. The mentioned performance includes jet formation, jet velocity, breakup, and penetration (its main parameters diameter and depth of penetration). ANSYS AUTODYN software is used for numerical simulations. Different solver and modeling alternatives of AUTODYN are evaluated for the jet formation and penetration studies. In AUTODYN two solvers were used, Euler solver and Lagrange solver. There are four cases that will discuss in this work, case-1 represents the original PG-7 with a cone angle of liner and the explosive charge is comp-A3, case-2 is the same as case-1 but the liner cone angle is, in case-3 modify the shape of the liner from cone to bi-cone with angle 22.5<sup>o</sup> and 60<sup>o</sup>, and case-4 is the same as case-3 but the angle of bi-cone is 14.5<sup>o</sup> and 60<sup>o</sup>. The results show that angle 60<sup>o</sup> is better than angle 45<sup>o</sup>, and the shape of the liner with bi-cone gives results of penetration better than that of the conical liner.</p> Mohamed F. Karar Mohammed A. Abdalla M.H. Abuuznien Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.81 A New Method for Correcting Deviation of Volatiles Content and Chamber Pressure for Single Base Propellant https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=82 <p>In this study, special treatment was applied to two production batches of single-base propellant to correct three of the most important properties in the final product. These properties are internal and external volatile content (IV%, EV% respectively) and chamber pressure, the special treatments depend on mixing two batches with different percentages of mixing starting with sieving and ended with blending to guarantee the homogeneity of the final batch. The batches under study (A and B), batch A with (IV% 0.53%) which must be not less than 0.6%, so it deviated from standard requirement and Bach B with (IV =0.88%), the treatment applied for these batches to generate (C and D) batches. Batch C was a mixture composed of (25% of batch A and 0.75% of batch B). batch D was a mixture composed of (50%batchA and 50% of batch B). Six samples were subjected to sieving and blending according to calculations to correct internal and external volatile content and chamber pressure. For all samples lab, ballistics test, and executive calculations were done. After the test observed that no significant difference between the test and the results of calculations for all samples with different mixing ratios either volatiles content or chamber pressure so according to the result achieved the procedure (Method) was dependable for correcting the deviation of volatiles content and chamber pressure. The selectivity of the optimum mixing ratio can be controlled by using the equation used in this study. The importance of this study in reducing material losses due to the non-conformity of the final product with the specification.</p> Haider Elbasher Ahmed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.82 Experimental Research on Lethal Range for 122 mm Carbon Fiber Warhead https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=83 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">A composite material is a combination of two materials with different physical and chemical properties. The main features of composite materials are durability is much greater than metals<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">,</span> easy to form for complex shapes, good resistance to chemicals and atmospheric factors and low thermal conductivity compared to minerals. In line with the development of the world and the technological progress in materials science and its properties, the idea of improving efficiency of warheads has emerged by finding alternatives materials to used in the manufacturing the outer body of warheads. </span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">In order to evaluate the lethal range two types of warhead confinement with preformed fragments were researched by means of experiment, this warheads body consists of composite casings Carbon Fiber and Kevler/Carbon Fiber (50/50%), balls fragments and high explosive. Experimental results show that the lethal range of charge with composite shell is higher than that of charge with steel shell by 10 to 12.5% and weight decreased by 11.5 %.</span></p> Ali M. Zain M. Abdelgadir M. Fadlldla Salah Majeed Ahmed Mahjoub Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.83 The Lethal Range Testing of Effective 80mm Air to Ground Warhead https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=84 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">The air force is the most important weapon during wars and battles. Through it, armies can control and isolate enemy territory, carry out their own operations and missions, allow for the increased bombing, tactical air support for ground forces, parachuting, airdrops, and the passage of cargo planes. Countries are working to enhance their air force by increasing the number of their aircraft and providing them with the latest modern technologies in monitoring targets, accurate and efficient missiles. </span><span style="font-size: 12pt;">This paper will present a completely new design of 80 mm controlled fragmentation warhead for air to surface missile has been designed and tested, the results of the experiment showed a good performance for tactical characteristics such as lethal range which is about 19 meters.</span></p> Ali M. Zain Mohammed A. Abdalla Mohamed F. M. Ahmed Salaheldin A.M. Badreldin Mouhamed Montaga Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.84 Design of Electronic Circuit for Mining Explosive Detonator https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=85 <p><strong>Designing of mining exclusive electronic circuit, safety for work environment is vital and important. The system devices contained transmitter block, which are containing computer monitoring software and internet modem. The other one is receiver block which is included explosive circuit and their components (i.e., a digital component mobile phone, ICs, and detector). To control the operation steps process used software program written with C<sup>++ </sup>language. The system was successfully built and designed. Besides that, it could capabilities of components set in the designed circuit. Moreover, the circuit and their components were operated carefully according to program sequence. The results are achieved the general objectives of the research. Also, it was match standards, specified in national standards for performances and appearances of such devices.</strong></p> Adil Elrayah Ausabah I.A. Ahmed Abdlrasool Jabbar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.85 Improvement of Composite Propellants Energy Using Explosive Materials https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=88 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">Composite propellants are energetic materials have ability to ignite, burn fast and cause several simultaneous exothermic chemical reactions which produce huge amounts of gases under high pressures and temperatures which can spread spontaneously. 1n the present study, the explosive material hexogen (Cyclo tri-methylene tri-nitramine) was used to improve the performance properties of composite propellants, especially the specific impulse. For several formulations of hexogen at different added percentages, the specific impulse was calculated using thermodynamic calculations program of composite propellants. The results given were compared with those formulations not including hexogen. It was seen that; hexogen caused a significant positive effect in the specific impulse. Accordingly, the energy of composite propellant was improved positively in the samples containing hexogen till 40% of the oxidizer ratio. Also, it was noticed that the specific impulse began to decrease gradually for the oxidizers containing more than 40% of hexogen which caused in a decreasing of composite propellant energy. Finally, it was concluded that, the use of some amount of explosive materials like hexogen can improve composite propellants energy successfully.</span></p> Amjad O. Saeed Nagmeldin M. Elamin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.88 Design and fabrication device for determine Mass and Center of gravity of GRAD rocket https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=91 <p>This paper describes the design and fabrication of a device measuring mass properties include mass, the center of gravity, and moment of inertias properties by integrating three operations into one equipment device for the object GRAD rocket. This paper focuses only on measuring mass and center of gravity in a single setup. The design is dividing into three steps. The first step is to explain how to measure the mass and center of gravity. The second step is the design and fabrication considerations of the equipment device. In the third step, the data acquisition systems for load cell using PLC. Test results of fabricated devices on a calibrated bar are homogeneity, and its center of gravity is also known. The mass and center of gravity of the GRAD rocket are a measure for three samples. And the results were within the required tolerance with high accuracy compared to CAD software, and the results achieved a percentage error rate of less than 5% for both the mass and center of gravity.</p> Rami Abdalgadir Alneem Mohamed A. Omer Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.91 Experimental Study of Boundary Layer flow over a Zero Pressure Gradient Convergent Riblet Plate https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=92 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Reducing the friction force in turbulence flows is an important research topic in fluid mechanics. Shark skin has less drag than smooth skins, therefore shark skin surfaces have been widely used. However, some turbulence mechanisms are not completely understood and the drag reduction mechanism of real shark skin has not been thoroughly understood. Many researchers have experimentally studied bio-inspired riblet surfaces to explain some specified phenomena for the sharkskin drag reduction effect. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of the converging-diverging riblet-type surface roughness on a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, to investigate the effect of the surface roughness on the large-scale features and to confirm that converging-diverging riblet generate large-scale counter-rotating vortices. The wind tunnel experiments involved laminar and turbulent flow at various Re were performed. Hot-wire anemometry was used to investigate near-wall flow structure over smooth and riblet surfaces. The results showed that the convergent riblet plate significantly impacted the boundary layer properties. Furthermore, the turbulent skin friction drag over the convergent riblet was higher than on a smooth surface. The results agree well with previous studies.</span></p> Elmukashfi Osman Lavi.R.Zuhal B. Nugroho Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.92 Study the causes of pitting corrosion in carbon steel water pipeline at the site of advanced chemical industries complex https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=73 <p class="000info" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">There are many factors that affect the pitting corrosion of carbon steel (Q235A) some of them are related to the pipeline material such as material chemical composition specifications and other related to water specifications such as water temperature, pH of the water, and chemical and physical specification of water. In this study, the investigation was done for both water quality and materials of pipelines (Q235A), four samples from on a piece of same rolled sheet welded pipe(carbon steel (Q235A) were prepared and tested for chemicals composition, microstructure, roughness, and thickness, the test results shown that no difference observed for all results only on one sample have difference roughness value near to the welded joint, these test applied for 4 pieces took from one pipe to check the effect of rolling of these pipes that can cause dissimilarity .which enhance corrosion rates. Then the water quality was investigated for temperature 45C, pH equal to 9, chloride, TDS, and water pressure, the test result showed that the temperature of the water was 45 C pH 9 and contain chloride with a concentration quite enough to initiate pitting. From the collected data this study specified the causes of pitting corrosion in the studied area of water pipelines and summarized in the flowing, this pipelines exposed to high pressure than the required, and temperature of water reach over 45C in summer, and chloride iron have the main contribution on pitting corrosion of these pipes.</span></p> KHALID OMER HAIDER ELBASHER AHMED ELTYB MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.73 Design and Simulation of a CAN Type Combustion Chamber https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=95 <p>The design of high-performance combustion chambers for gas turbine engines is considered one of the difficult tasks for engineers. This study presents the design of a can-type combustion chamber. The parametric cycle analysis of a low bypass turbofan engine (AL-31F) was provided to obtain the air properties at the combustor inlet. Empirical equations are used to determine the dimensions of the combustion chamber. GAMBIT software was used to create the combustor model and the simulation was accomplished using ANSYS software. This CFD code is a steady, quasi-three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. K-w viscous model and non-premixed combustion model are used. Presented the results of cycle analysis of the turbofan engine and the dimensions of combustor components and cooling holes. An analysis of the distribution of temperature, pressure, and velocity throughout the combustion chamber is provided. The obtained results were compared for analytical and computational approaches and suggested with previous studies.</p> Mohammed Balla Abdelwahid Hazim Mohammed Taha Amar Mustafa Suliman Hozaifa Mohammed Nazir Ayaat Ibrahim Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.95 Design and Implementation of an Encryption Unit to Enhance Satellite Communication Security https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=97 <p>Satellite projects consume very high resources in all of their phases (research, design, manufacturing, testing and launching), they also extend for significant amount of time, and hence satellites must be protected against intrusion and data perception. Over the past years, satellite security has been overlooked except for military satellites because satellite intrusions were inconceivable as they far away from earth, but recently commercial satellite manufacturers realized the importance of satellite security because satellite intrusion became not an impossible task. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of encryption unit to secure satellite communication system by ciphering tele-commands using advanced encryption algorithm (AES) with random key generation, Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm and Hash-based message authentication code (HMAC) digital signature algorithm.</p> Mustafa Atta M. Alhassan Yasir M Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.97 Enhancing the Bending Stiffness of Nanosatellite Composite Panel https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=99 <p><strong>The extreme working environment presented in many forms such as inevitable vibrations caused by various sources can lead to problems of the impairment of the nanosatellite functionality and integrity of its structure, as well as weakening the protection of internal components, which may trigger minor structural damage to total failure. To solve these addressed problems in this work, the bending stiffness of square laminated composite panel used in the structure of CubeSat, a version of nanosatellite, has been improved. A literature review for the previous studies and publications related to the current work has been studied. A mathematical equation that describes the stiffness behaviour of the composite panel has been derived based on the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT). The equation of motion (E.O.M) is also derived according to the Euler-Lagrange energy equation of the second kind. For determining the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of vibrating panel, Fourier series is used to solve the E.O.M of plate supported with a numerical solution using finite element method (FEM) for verification. The optimisation process is conducted to improve the bending stiffness of the structure, which is indicated by the increased value of first mode fundamental frequency, by finding the optimum stacking sequence for a set of design constraints using Miki Diagram method. The obtained results and conclusion from the addressed problem have been reported at the end of this work presenting the enhanced composite-panel bending stiffness and showed a promising findings that believed to contribute solving problems relevant to structural performance of aerospace structures.</strong></p> Abdulaziz Abdulmajid Sulieman Awad Ibrahim Tariq Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.99 Design and Manufacturing of a Fuze Disassembly Device https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=100 <p><strong>Dealing with ammunition fuzes is a high-risk task due to the inclusion of high sensitive explosive materials that may explode if not treated with care. In this work, the design and manufacturing of a disassembly device were explained. The device is based on</strong><br /><strong>a pneumatic system to improve safety in a process attached to highly sensitive explosive materials. The design was implemented using different manufacturing processes such as milling, lathe, and CNC machines in addition to welding. The disassembly operation was accomplished using a predetermined amount of air, and speed controlled from one hundred meters. The device is useful in production and R&amp;D processes as it saves the time of disassembly and reduces the explosion risk. </strong></p> Mustafa E. Mejdi A. H Mohamed F.K 1A. Mahjub Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.100 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Internal Ballistics Parameters for Howitzer Field Guns https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=101 <p class="000info" style="line-height: normal; layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">Howitzer Gun is a type of large-caliber artillery gun that typically utilizes a mixture of propellant grain shapes to control the burning inside the gun, and to impart the prescribed velocity to the projectile with the smallest mass of charge without exceeding the maximum allowable pressure. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to predict the main internal ballistic parameters i.e., Maximum Pressure (Max. P) and Muzzle Velocity (MV) for artillery howitzer guns. The propellant charge utilized is a single-base propellant using a mixture of dual-shape grain namely, tubular and multi-tubular seven-hole shapes. The mathematical model was solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method in MATLAB environment for a 130 mm howitzer field gun which was chosen as a test case. <a name="_Hlk79676010"></a>The simulation results were obtained in terms of several plots showing the effect of grain shape and grain mixture ratio on the Max. P and MV along the gun barrel. Furthermore, the optimum mixture ratio gives a slightly reduced MV with a significant reduction in Max. P has been determined graphically and compared with experimental data taken from the test firing of the gun. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental ones (less than 10% numerical error). The proposed model can be used in the analysis and optimization of other similar gun systems taking into account the right input data for both guns, and propellants.</span></p> Ahmed Mahjub Mohammed H. M. Abuuznien Haytham M. A. Elmokhtar Mohammed A. Abdalla Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.101 Application of Surfactant Material as Anti-hygroscopicity agent for Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=104 <p><strong>Ammonium nitrate is a promising rocket propellant oxidizer. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Due to the surface polarity of ammonium nitrate, the particles can easy absorb moisture. In this study, ammonium nitrate particles were coated by cetylalcohol surfactant in order to reduce the hygroscopicity. The optimized physical coating process using cetylalcohol was achieved by (L9 (34 )) Taguchi orthogonal array (TOA).The analysis of TOA revealed that the highest decline of absorption rate was 35.45% with the mass ratio of coating layer was 0.95%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface of coated and uncoated ammonium nitrate. The idea and approach presented in this study can help the researchers to improving anti-hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate.</strong></p> Baha Eldien Ismail Abd Allah Elzaki Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.104 Redesigning & Manufacturing the First Punch for 107 mm Warhead https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=109 <p><strong>This paper is devoted to show the effect of changing the design of the first punch on the wear consumption of the second punch by redesigning, simulating and manufacturing of the first punch for 107 mm warhead in order to reduce the consumption in the second punch, increase the productivity and also produce the product with high quality. SOLIDWORKS software for design and simufact forming for analysis has been used to design and manufacturing the first punch. Simufact forming has been used to study the die wear to determine the consumption rate of the second punch. The effective stress that affect the properties of the final product has been calculated by simufact. A comparison between the second punch which has been used after using the designed first punch and after using the old first punch shows that the wear in the second punch after using the new design is less than the wear in the second punch after using the old one, which means the life time of the second punch after using the new designed first punch will be longer than using it after using the old first punch. The various machining processes which is required for producing the punch are done, beside heat treatments. Final results of this work show that it is possible to improve the dies and use it in the optimal way also it prove the possibility of manufacturing dies locally instead of importing it from outside Sudan.</strong></p> Abdelnasir Mohammed Abdelateef Altaher Abdelateef Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.109 An efficient signcryption scheme for vehicular satellite-based networks https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=110 <p><strong>With the widespread of the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), a huge number of vehicles are connecting to networks. To provide the position of these vehicles, the global position system (GPS) is required. Usually, the GPS is commoned with internal sensors mounted inside the vehicle. Thus, the communication with this sensor is needed when we need to specify the position of vehicle through the satellite. This communication is done by using a secure channels. However, the authentication and privacy are deemed as the main goal of the network communication. Therefore, an efficient signcryption scheme for vehicular satellite-based network (SVSN) is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme meets the security demands for VANETs, for instance authentication, unforgeability, confidentiality, and integrity. Based on the Discrete Logarithm (DL) problem, the presented scheme is secure. Compared with the existing signcryption schemes, the performance analysis show that our proposed scheme is more suitable for vehicular satellite networks.</strong></p> Rashad Elhabob Abdalla Adel Nabeil Eltayieb Alzubier Hassan Mohamed A.H Damos Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.110 Color ruler to confirm spectrophotometer results for nitro compound content in acidic wastewater from TNT processes https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=112 <p>This study aimed to find an additional analytical reference procedure to verify the accuracy of single beam Spectrophotometer results that used to determine the concentration of nitro compound pollutants such as TNT, DNT, and MNT (Tri Nitro Toluene, Di Nitro toluene, and Mono Nitro Toluene respectively) in treated acidic wastewater generated from TNT manufacturing. This procedure was tested and confirmed to be a reference for a single-beam spectrophotometer. In this study 10 samples with known concentrations were taken and prepared for colorimetric analysis, the concentrations gradient from 10mg/L up to 60mg/L to make a ruler with gradient color, this ruler was suitable for high concentration samples but to specify the low concentration samples the procedure depended on adding a known concentration to the unknown concentration sample then this added concentration transferred the samples from unspecified color to specified color on the ruler consisted by known concentration mentioned above, the concentration of unknown concentration samples were specified by taking the concentration corresponding to the ruler color a subtracting the value of added concentration and the value of the remains was sample concentration. This study proved the reliability of this procedure to confirm single-beam spectrophotometer results, determining low concentration value of unknown concentration sample of TNT acidic wastewater, and then it can be used as a substituent of spectrophotometer in the event of malfunctions.</p> Ahmed Mahjoub Osman Eltayeb Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.112 Blind Adaptive Equalization for Aerospace Communication Channels https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=137 <p><strong>In some communication systems, it is desirable for the receiver to synchronize to the received signal and to adjust the equalizer without having knowledge of a training sequence. Blind equalization uses the initial adjustment of the coefficients without making use of a training sequence. Different adaptive blind equalization algorithms have been developed over the past four decades. In this paper, we investigate the effect of blind equalization on space communication channels. The space channel under investigation is considered to be a multipath frequency selective channel having four paths. The channel is subjected to the phenomenon of InterSymbol Interference (ISI) which severely degrades the performance of the space communication system. Two blind algorithms are used in equalizer adjustment. The impulse responses of the space channel, the blind equalizer and the combination of channel and equalizer for QPSK and 16-QAM transmission are shown. The scatter diagrams for the transmitted sequence, received sequence, and the output of the equalizer using two of the blind algorithms are shown.</strong></p> Elessaid S. Saad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.137 Study of the Effect of Risk Management Application on the Performance of Giad industrial Group https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=50 <p class="000info" style="layout-grid-mode: char;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;">Risk management is particularly important at the present time and constitute a new approach in firms, has seen all industries acceleration and great changes in recent years, in order to benefit from risk management to provide protection for firms and continuity performance its activities should provide the critical success factors for risk management. The research problem is represented in the role of risk management on the performance of industrial firms in Sudan, the research aims to deepen the understanding of risk management and its application to firms and to know the reasons that led to the failure and faltering of the performance of these firms as well as finding appropriate solutions ,The researcher used the descriptive-analytical method in conducting this study and designed a questionnaire as the main tool for data collection, This research develops through the assumption that there is a positive relationship between risk management and the performance of the firm where the study found that risk management practices are applied in moderate proportions by the leaders and employees of the Sudanese industrial firms and dominated by the reactive method rather than proactive, One of the most important recommendations of the study is that industrial organizations have to adopt effective systems for managing organizational risks and that they be monitored and reviewed for deviations in order to be in line with the strategy of the firm. </span></p> YASSIN ASSADIG ALI AHMED Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.50 Product improvement by cycle time reduction through Lean Methodology (Product Sh-3 as Case Study) https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=30 <p><strong>This paper aims to determine and study the effect of applying a lean manufacturing approach on reducing cycle time in producing tube cases of the product Sh-3 missile. Since the tube case is the critical part of the sh-3 missiles set and it represents the bottleneck of a Sh-3 missile, the overall cycle time &amp; increasing productivity is depending on it. Lean manufacturing is used to obtain the best resource utilization in various fields, in military manufacturing case, there are special conditions of operation and manufacturing which need a special deal and solutions, using the same tools of approach. In this article, waste analysis,</strong><br /><strong>waste identification, and waste elimination were applied using (PDSA approach, 5s, 8 wastes, PokaYoka, visual management, Kaizen, SMED) tools, the optimum cycle time will be determined after applying this study and will be presented in terms of hours and percentage of the previous situation. Generally, the current situation shows that the tube case of the product sh-3 missile is produced in 51 working days with 8 working days between each product and other. The predicted results of this study giving about 10% reduction in the cycle time of the target product.</strong></p> Hassan Abdo Hassan Ibrahim Merghni Mahmoud Elemam Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.30 A re-engining approach for light aircraft applied to SAFAT-03 https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=31 <p><strong>This study shows the importance of re-engining a light aircraft operating with engines have old technologies consume much fuel and with fuel type harms the environment, which affecting the economic situation represented by specific fuel consumption (SFC) resulted in increasing the direct operating cost (DOC). In this paper, an analytical approach has been followed, the performance evaluation and the Weight and balance calculation have been calculated using Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA) and MATLAB based on the available data for the aircraft and engine. The selected engine was AUSTRO AE 300, a turbocharged four cylinders geared diesel piston engine equipped with a fuel injection system. This work gives a predictable result.</strong></p> EBRAHIM AYOUP M. SALIH Mohamed Abdelazim Abdalla Mohamed Mohammed Mahdi Abdulla Mohammedahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.31 Design and Fabrication of a Testing Rig for UAV Using Pendulum Theory https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=33 <p class="000info" style="line-height: 150%; layout-grid-mode: char;"><strong>The determination of an accurate value of a moment of inertia plays a vital role in designing decent mechanical parts as general such as a flight control system for aircraft. This why an accurate value for moment of inertia is needed. A test rig was designed and made form cardboard and then developed for wood. Experiments were carried out, to get to the final shape and product for the test rig, and it was manufactured with dimensions of 2.7x2.5 meters and with a holder dimension of 60x60 cm that bears up to 10 kg. Moreover, an electronic circuit has been used to measure the period of oscillations. The moment of inertia of a rectangular block of wood and a UAV is found. The moment of inertia was measured analytically and experimentally for the block of wood, and by comparing the values it founds that the error ratio from 1%to5% in X axis and -6% to 7% in Y axis. For the UAV the moment of inertia’s error ratio in X axis from 2% to 5% and in Y axis from 11% to 14%. It is noticed that the greater the additional weight, the greater the accuracy of the device.</strong></p> Yasserh77Yasser A. M. Nogoud yasserf Tariq O. Aburass Anas H. Ibrahim cDenan M. Abdelrasheed Reem M. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.33 Study and Manufacturing of Heat Insulator for Thermoplastic Composite Propellant https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=34 <p class="000info" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; layout-grid-mode: char;"><strong>The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of localizing the manufacturing of heat insulator for thermoplastic Composite propellant which plays an important role in modern warfare. The Original heat insulator had been tested and the mechanical properties were determined to take them as a reference results for the new one in working different formulation. The heat insulation materials which used are silicon dioxide, Titanium dioxide, Antimony tri oxide, calcium carbonate and talk powder. It was seen that, the using of the above materials grand good results in the first testing stage. When the heat insulator used in the production processes some remarks were appeared, such as the flow by heat during homogenizing process. One of the formulations suggested and tested, was passed all the production processes and tests in the real product and grant excellent results compared with the Original heat insulator. The erosion rate for local insulator was 0.36mm/s while the erosion rate for the Original one is 0.37mm/s. This work proved that, the production of heat insulator for Thermoplastic composite propellants can be localized successfully.</strong></p> omer elamin hamad nagmeldin m. elamin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.34 Modeling and Simulation of Geometric Automatic Landing System https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=36 <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong>Landing process accomplished in major phases: The glide path phase and the finishing flare manoeuvre. With rapid advances in instrument landing systems (ILS), aircraft became able to operate safely in weather conditions with restricted visibility. Automatic landing facing problems such as: losing ground signals, and landing on airports un-equipped with ground signals during bad weather. The main goals of this paper are using airplane – runway geometry and the flight angle to generate the control commands, and design a spatial PID controller that maintains the aircraft fling along the glide path flowed by the flare and the touching down to the desired runway position. The controller controls the airplane longitudinal motion, lateral motion to get the safe glide path angle. The PID controller continuously updates the coordinates and sends control signals to update the airplane position to attain the safest landing. Results showed that the PID controller was successfully designed for this type of instrument landing system, this design has performed good response and the landing is safer</strong></p> Elkhidir Tay Allah Yousif Rasha Abd elrahman Muaaz Abdulrahem Ibrahem Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.36 Design and Implementation of High Directivity Directional Coupler at VHF Band Using Grounding Composed of Strip Lines Technics https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=38 <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong>This paper proposes a design of high directivity directional coupler (D.C) based on grounding composed of strip lines for high power Radar transmitter at Very High Frequency (VHF), (150 – 200 MHz). The directional coupler is used to check and verify the transmitter output high power, frequency, and reflected signal from an antenna connected with the Radar transmitter. The performance requirements of directional couplers are a strong coupling to reduce the effect on the transmitted output power and high directivity to suppress the interference of the reflected signal from the antenna. So far, various architectures have been proposed to gain high directivity, and there have been many studies used to obtain a strong coupling and higher directivity. However, the conventional architecture of the directional coupler has a directivity of only about 20 dB, and there have been difficulties to achieve the higher directivity of more than 20 dB. In this paper, the proposed architecture of directional coupler based on grounding composed of strip lines is discussed and compares the test results of the proposed directional coupler with the conventional one.</strong> <strong>The high directivity directional coupler is designed using a computer-aided design Simulation program; Advance Design System (ADS 2016), using Rogers 4003 substrate. The directional coupler was fabricated on printed circuit board (PCB) technology and measured using a vector network analyzer (VNA). The results show that the proposed directional coupler has directivity between -25 to -24 dB inside the working bandwidth and is adequate for a high-power radar transmitter.</strong></p> Atef Merghani Abdallah Abdalmagd Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.38 Design and Simulation of Pitch Optimizer and Stall Protection for a Typical UAV https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=40 <p><strong>Flight dynamics of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the science of its orientation and control in three dimensions. Primary orientations include Pitch, Roll, and Yaw. The rear part of the tailplane is known as elevator control of UAV pitch. An airplane stall is an aerodynamic condition in which the airplane exceeds its given critical angle of attack and is no longer able to produce the required lift of normal flight. The main goal of this paper is to design a controller that optimizes the response speed of pitch control and design stall protection for a typical UAV. This protection system operates according to certain conditions, which are known stall conditions. When UAV reaches these conditions, the system generates a warning that UAV is at stall point and the pilot must adjust the situation to stabilize UAV. A PID controller has been implemented on MATLAB, also mathematically calculations were done to obtain suitable PID gains for a faster and accurate response of UAV elevator, after that, these mathematically PID gains have been applied to MATLAB/Simulink. Results showed the control parameters improved, such that settling time is 4.6220 seconds, the rise time is 0.2788 seconds, the percentage overshoot is 36.8192%, and steady-state error less than 2%.</strong></p> <p> </p> Elkhidir Tay Allah Yousif Osama Algaili Elnour Muaaz Abdulrahem Ibrahem Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.40 Centrifugal Compressor and Bell mouth Air Intake Preliminary Design for Micro Turbojet Engine https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=45 <p><strong>This paper presents a design of centrifugal compressor and air intake for micro turbojet engine of 200 N thrust. Because of the small size of the micro turbine engines the air intake is designed in the form of bellmouth air intake in order to capture the needed amount of mass flow rate (0.45 kg/s). The function of the air intake is to deliver the air to the entry of the centrifugal compressor. The air intake has been drawn with start-up motor to take in the consideration the effect. The centrifugal compressor was designed to deliver 3.8 pressure ratio with efficiency about 77%. The compressor impeller was built with 7 main blades and 7 splitters in order to reduce the effect of slip at the exit of the impeller due to pressure difference between pressure and suction side of the main blade. Diffuser of 13 vanes also was designed to increase the static pressure, direct the flow to the combustion chamber and decrease the flow velocity before to enhance the combustion process. The structural integrity for impeller was validated using ANSYS software for aluminum alloy 7075-T6; 7075651. In addition, the aerodynamic analysis was investigated using NUMECA software. The most important findings of the extensive analysis were; the impact of air intake on compressor performance is very crucial. It add an increment in efficiency and pressure ratio, it should be taken in consideration in early design stage of the compressor. The highest performance characteristics of compressor were achieved by accurate design optimization of impeller-diffuser interaction.</strong></p> Hamed Mohamed Ahmed Ali Abdallah Almadani MuhammadAlhassan Abdelrazig Abdelfadail Abdelrazig Alla aldeen Ismail Massar Muhammed Musa Haroun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.45 Simulation and Implementation of Moving Platform for Flight Simulator https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=48 <p><strong>Flight simulator is a virtual reality system capable of simulating an environment of a flying machine for a pilot. This work presented a simulation and implementation example of a six degree of freedom moving platform as a part of a flight simulator, most flight simulators adopted the Stewart platform as a moving platform. Therefore, a mathematical model of the Stewart platform is derived by solving inverse kinematics problem, to find the length of all legs for a given desired position and orientation. The mathematical model is verified and simulated using MATLAB software. Low-cost commercially available components are provided for the constructed prototype. Additionally, interfacing between hardware and software components is accomplished by Arduino Uno. Obtained results showed that the range of translational motion is and cm along <em>x</em>, <em>y,</em> and <em>z</em> respectively, as well as, the rotational range is +_5,+-3 and +-10 about the mentioned three axes.</strong></p> Elkhidir Tay Allah Yousif AbdElbagi Omer Eldany Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.48 Investigating the Suitability of Different Routing Strategies In Specific VANET Application Class https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=49 <p><strong>Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET), is an emerging technology that holds the opportunity to create potential applications that directly impact peoples' lives, traffic management, and infotainment services. Understanding VANET applications and the available routing protocols can help to infer the most suitable protocols that satisfy VANET application requirements. This paper develops a systematic classification methodology to classify VANET applications from a routing perspective, each application class has different network requirements which are laid down by VANET Projects conducted in different countries. Some of these requirements are related to the routing aspects and need to be satisfied by the selected routing strategies (proactive and reactive). The paper identifies routing strategies performance metrics related to each application class requirement, to efficiently guide the development of these routing strategies towards guaranteeing satisfactory performance for the applications under a wide variety of realistic VANET scenarios. It is also worth mentioning that minimum delay is a requirement needed by time and event-driven application classes. However, high reliability is a requirement needed by on-demand applications. The paper aims to provide a comparative study on the performance of routing strategies in different VANET application classes, to identify which routing strategies have better performance in specific VANET applications class. End-to-end delay is employed as a performance metric to evaluate the short delay requirement, while, the Routing Overhead (RO) is used to assess the reliability requirement. Simulation results showed that proactive routing protocol has a lower delay, which means that it is suitable for delay-sensitive applications such as time-driven and event-driven applications. The result also showed that the reactive routing protocol outperforms the proactive routing protocol in terms of RO, which means that reactive routing protocols can be nominated as proper routing strategies to satisfy the reliability requirement of the On-demand driven applications.</strong></p> Abdeldime Mohamed Tagreed Yahya Chen Peng Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.49 Manufacturing of High-Pressure Temperature Composite Tube using Filament Winding https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=27 <p><strong>In this study, a winding process for sixteen E-fiberglass composite tube was made. Before the processing, fiber had been tested for tensile strength for E-fiberglass and carbon fiber. Nine polymer matrix laboratory scale were made and analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fourteen wounded tubes were tested for burst pressure using hydrostatic test, to measure the performance winding process, matrix material, and winding angle patterns. The pattern (±45)<sub>6</sub>, 90, with resins EPN 1338 and E44, with curing agent DJ651 gives the best burst pressure, which was 11.3 MPa. The two last tubes were tested for high temperature using 85g black powder for the first tube, and 250g for the second one, producing pressure about 1.38 MPa, and 5.23 MPa for the first and the second tube respectively. Even with increasing black powder amount three times, the yielding pressure increased about 3.8 times in the second tube, while the composite tube outer temperature for the first and the second one was 48°C, and 71°C respectively, which just increased about one-half times.</strong></p> Mohammed Abdelgadir Abdalla Mohammed Mohamed Talballa Elsheikh Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.27 Detection and Tracking of UAV Targets Using Deep Learning https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=51 <p><strong>In recent years, the use of Flying drones and modern Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with the latest techniques and capabilities for both civilian and military applications growing sustainably on a large scope, Drones could autonomously fly in several environments and locations and could perform various missions, providing a system for UAV detection and tracking represent crucial importance. This paper discusses Designing Detection and Tracking method as a part of Aero-vehicle Defense System (ADS) for UAVs using Deep learning algorithms. The small Radar cross-section (RCS) foot-print makes a problem for Traditional methods and Aero-vehicle Defense systems to distinguish between birds, stealth fighters, and UAVs incomparable of size and RCS characteristics, the detection is a challenge in low RCS targets because the chance of detection is incredibly less moreover, in the existence of interference and clutter which reduce the performance of detection process rapidly. </strong></p> Mohamed Khedir Noraldain Alamin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.51 Design and Implementation of CNC Writing Machine Based on Arduino Micro-controller https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=53 <p><strong>This paper discussed the design and implementation of a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine for writing or sketch by employ parts of computer scraps (DVD-ROM). The Arduino Uno used as the controller for this project with using Inkscape program, which converts images and text into g- code format and then sends this g- code to the processing3 program which is an interface the connection between the arduino and the computer and the language of the CNC machine. The g-code includes a set of x y z coordinates that are sent to the motors, the Z coordinates are transmitted to the servo motor that directs the movement of the pen, the Y coordinates are sent to the stepper motor 1 that directs the horizontal movement of the DVD rail and the X coordinate is send to the Stepper motor 2 that directs the vertical movement of the DVD rail. This project can be used in logo Design. CNC machines can be utilized ceaselessly 24 hours every day, 365 days per year and just should be turned off for intermittent support.</strong></p> Asaad musaab Ali yousif Asaad Mohammed Alamein Taha Babker Ibrahim Mahmoud Osman Suliman Omer Marwa Mahmoud AbdAllatif Mohamed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.53 The neutralizing of Acidic Wastewater Produced From Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Factory by Rock granules https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=54 <p><strong>Acidic wastewater treatment for the TNT factory which located in the middle of the mountains is characterized by part of its nature with alkaline properties, which prompted the researcher to take advantage of it in the treatment of acidic water instead of caustic soda. Acidic waste water is originated from spent acid treatment building, nitration, purification building, drying and packing building in TNT factory. The objective of this study is to use treated Acidic water TNT Factory by rock granules. Acidic waste water is mixed together with rock granules lye after crushed process of these rocks. The results the pH value of water after neutralizing reaction showed a significant rise in pH from 1.20 to 7. 00. This is within the SSMO. These data included reduction in BOD from 30.00 to 7.00 mg/l which is also within the range of SSMO. The COD value of the acidic wastewater which is 65.00 mg/l to 11 mg/l which is also within the range of SSMO. The use of rock granules for treatment will save an amount 9.45kg/t of caustic soda per ton of product TNT product.</strong></p> Hisham Dafa Alla ali Mahjoub Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.54 Neutralizing TNT Acidic Wastewater With Neem Leaves Powder https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=57 <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong>This study conducted to substituting of NaOH used as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewater generated from manufacturing of TNT in factory of Sudanese Military industries by natural material such as Neem leaves powder. The requirement for pH values of astewater to be disposed over 6. Four weights (5 , 7.5, 10 and 12.5 ) g of dry Neem leaves powder prepared and added to four samples of acidic wastewater with volume of 100 ml for each samples, the pH values of wastewater measured after four periods (1 ,2,3 and 4) hr for each weight added. The results showed the pH values raised from 1.7 to 6.94 and no any residual salts observed. The Neem leaves powder is effective alternatives for sodium hydroxide to neutralizing acidic wastewater at TNT plant.</strong></p> khalid hamid Abdelmoneim Massad Abdalla Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.57 Structural Design and Analysis of a Light Aircraft Wing https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=58 <p><strong>The aim of this study is to perform structural design and analysis of a light aircraft wing. Both aerodynamic analysis and structural design of the wing are covered. The aerodynamic analysis is achieved by using Schrenks Approximation Method simulated in MATLAB to estimate the lift distribution. In addition, static stress analysis of the wing is carried out to compute the stresses at wing structure when subjected to the generated aerodynamic loads and thereby examine its structural reliability. The stresses are estimated by using the finite element software package MSC/NASTRAN/PATRAN. A maximum Von Mises stress of 135MPa is obtained which is less than the yield stress for aluminum alloy used in wing design. On the other hand, and based on the finite element model, a free-vibration analysis is performed for the whole model. The frequencies for the first three modes and the corresponding mode shapes are presented. The purpose of this study is to correlate and validate the finite element model against the modal test in preparation for further complex analysis. The finite element results have shown that the suggested wing configuration of the light aircraft is safe, with margins of safety equal to 1.33 which occurs at the root section.</strong></p> HANA.M. ALMAGZOB TARIK.H. ELSSONI ABDULAZIZ ABDUL MAJID Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.58 Rear Fuselage Structural Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=61 <p><strong>Structural optimization is one of the most important tasks during the airplane structural design and yet there is a lack of well established procedures to determine the optimum design of aerospace structures. This paper represents development of structural optimization code based on genetic algorithm, and results for light aircraft aft fuselage optimal design using the optimization code. We have developed a MATLAB code according to the genetic algorithm and FE model for the composite light aircraft aft fuselage using MSC PATRAN to generate NASTRAN input file; the MATLAB code was coupled with MSC NASTRAN which used to perform linear static and buckling analysis. we obtained the minimum weight of the aft fuselage with a linear static and buckling constraints; the minimum weight is 21.6 kg; it has been obtained after 43 iterations; the margin of safety is of the optimum design is 1.22 and the buckling factor is 1.24 and hence the structure is free of static failure and buckling. The code is efficient in the conceptual and preliminary structural design phases to obtain the optimal aft fuselage weight.</strong></p> Mutwakil Elmshaikhi ABDALMAGED Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.61 Motives for Decreasing the Curing Time of HTPB-AP Composite Propellants https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=64 <p>One of the standard conditions for solidifying composite propellants consist of hydroxyl terminated poly-butadiene as a binder and ammonium perchlorate as oxidizer, is the curing process for certain time in a certain temperature. On this paper, the motives and reasons for the decreasing of this curing time were studied and discussed. The study and discussion include the productivity, cost, delivery, manpower, and maintenance points of view. By experiments and questionnaire work, it was seen that, all the previous points of view were affected positively. Generally, the productivity of the propellant was increased by 100%, the cost of curing process was decreased by 25% of the previous cost, the man power needed for the process of waiting and recording the readings was decreased by 50%, customer delivery process was fasted by 50% of the previous delivery time, and finally the maintenance processes due to equipment depreciation were improved by 50% from the previous. From the whole point of view, it was seen that, the decreasing of the curing time is very useful for the production of the propellant. Finally, it is observed that the decreasing of the curing time to the half time brought the same properties of the standard curing time, and then it is concluded that the deceasing of the curing time can be applied safely and usefully in the casting production line.</p> Nagmeldin Elamin Ahemed.M. Bashir Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.64 Improvement of the Design of Rocket Propelled Granite (RPG.7) Main Tubes Forging Dies https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=69 <p><strong>This paper presents a proposed new design of a forging die used for producing the forged tube of a rocket launcher. In the practiced technology for producing as the forged tube many problems raised as a result of the selection of the parting line (P.L.) at the upper tangent of the circular cross-section of the product, which resulted in a semi-parabolic cross- section that causes some technical mishaps which can be summarized in the following points: the large amount of raw material lost as turning chips during the turning process of the machined tube; The high consumption rate of tools during the turning process of the machined tube; damage caused by rough turning lathe machine as a result of the high vibrations due to turning of a non-cylindrical profiles and the short life-time of the forging die due to its embracing of the majority of the volume of the forge tube. In the proposed design the parting line (P.L.) will be located in the mid-section of the circular cross-section of the product (the forged tube) in order to solve these problems .This led to a design of a new set of hammering dies and subsequently a set of trimming dies by applying the standard design considerations and with the help of the CAD/CAM package software: ”VISI-15”. The proposed design differs significantly from the upsetting forging which have a parting line perpendicular to the longitudinal rolling direction of the forged product. When using the new designed dies, the saving in an input raw material (weapon steel) is estimated to reach up to 5 kilograms per forged tube. This became a considerable saving in the annual production cost. Minimizing the handling weight of the forged tube (from 16 Kg/Piece to 5 Kg/Piece) during the production processes results in a relatively less man power effort compared with the practiced technology. Besides the minimization of the consumption rate of the cutting tools and the rate of the replacement of the rough turning machines</strong></p> Malik Eltahir Elhadi Abdelfattah Bilal Abdelsalam Abdelnasir Mohammed Zain Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.69 Development of a Computer Based Gas Turbine Instruments Test system https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=70 <p><strong>Due to the significant importance of gas turbine engines as it is the core of the aircr aft, the engine health status should be tested periodically. Testing methodologies are needed to conduct the engine tests required as a part of airworthiness certification. In this project, a Data Acquisition System (DAQ) was developed as a turboshaft engi ne (GTD 350) testing system. This system was developed to monitor the engine parameters for determining its condition. A PIC 16F877A microcontroller was used as the heart of the DAQ. Internal Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) acquired data from analog sig nals. The analog signals gathered from temperature, tacho generator, throttle, and pressure sensors were transformed into digital format, and then the corresponding data was sent serially to Personal Computer (PC) through a microcontroller serial port. The visual basic program was designed to convert, scale, and display these data. Furthermore, the system was designed to analyze, compare the displayed data with standard stored data, and provides automatically a troubleshooting list whenever upnormal data oc curred. The developed test system had been applied successfully and the results are accurate, reliable, and acceptable.</strong></p> <p> </p> Elkhidir Tay Allah Yousif Faris Osman Mohamed Ahmed Alamin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.70 Design and Optimization of Low speed wind tunnel Contraction Using CFD https://journals.karary.edu.sd/index.php?journal=JKUES&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=71 <p><strong>This paper describes the design and fabrication of a device measuring mass properties include mass, the center of gravity, and moment of inertias properties by integrating three operations into one equipment device for the object GRAD rocket. This paper focuses only on measuring mass and center of gravity in a single setup. The design is divided into three steps. The first step is to explain how to measure the mass and center of gravity. The second step is the design and fabrication considerations of the equipment device. In the third step, the data acquisition systems for load cell using PLC. Test results of fabricated devices on a calibrated bar are homogeneity, and its center of gravity is also known. The mass and center of gravity of the GRAD rocket are a measure for three samples. And the results were within the required tolerance with high accuracy compared to CAD software, and the results achieved a percentage error rate of less than 5% for both the mass and center of gravity.</strong></p> Rami Abdalgadir Alneem Eimad eldin E. Musa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Karary University for Engineering and Science 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 10.54388/jkues.v1i2.71